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[Applied Cryogenics]


[What is Cryogenic Treatment?]



What can you expect?

Why ACI?

What is cryogenics?
Cryogenics is the branch of physics that deals with the production and effects of very low temperatures. Cryogenic processing is a fascinating and truly spectacular means to increase wear resistance & life on all metal and some plastics.

What is cryogenic treatment?
Cryogenic treatment of materials is a process for enhancing the properties of metals and crystalline or partially crystalline non-metals. Properly cryo-treat components exhibit enhanced wear resistance, increased fatigue life, somewhat improved corrosion resistance, and improved dimensional stability.

How Does Deep Cryogenic Processing work?
Research, some quite recent, has revealed three mechanisms at work to account for the observed property changes in components thermally cycled in a proper cryogenic treatment process.

First, in hardened ferrous alloys retained austenite is transformed to martensite producing a more uniformly hard surface (and interior volume). The more uniform hardness profile is better able to resist abrasive wear.

Second, recent research has revealed the production of very fine carbide precipitates in hardened and cryogenically treated ferrous alloys. These carbide particles aid in the resistance to abrasive wear.

Finally, all crystalline or partially crystalline materials including metals, both ferrous and non-ferrous, and non-metals exhibit a strong stress relief effect after proper cryogenic treatment.

The relief of residual stresses contributes to;
(1) Abrasion resistance
(2) Corrosion resistance
(3) Fatigue life
(4) The reduction of chipping in components subjected to repetitive stress loading
(5) Improved dimensional stability.


Cryogenic Processing is not a substitute for heat-treating.
Cryogenic processing will not in itself harden metal like quenching and tempering. It is not a substitute for heat-treating. It is an addition to heat-treating. Most alloys will not show much of a change in hardness due to cryogenic processing. The abrasion resistance of the metal and the fatigue resistance will be increased substantially.

Cryogenic Processing is not a coating.

It affects the entire volume of the material. It works synergistically with coatings. You cannot wear cryogenic processing off a part. It is there for the life of the part unless that part is subjected to such temperatures that it is brought up to the austenization temperatures. Unlike coated tools, a cryogenically treated tool can be sharpened, dressed, or modified. The change brought about by cryogenic processing is permanent.

The process works synergistically with most coatings. This is because coatings generally work by decreasing the coefficient of friction and by preventing metals from galling. Coatings start to fail when the metal underneath them fails. It is not unusual to find wear particles with coating on one side and base metal on the other. The coating did not fail; the base metal under it failed. Cryogenic processing keeps the metal under the coating from failing while the coating protects the metal.

Applied Cryogenics Inc., (ACI) is in the business of manufacturing cryo plants for the past 25 years. ACI builds the most efficient cryoprocessing available on the market. These rugged, vacuum insulated machines process materials at the lowest total cost of any machine. Being vacuum insulated, their lifespan is easily five times that of the competition. Although their initial cost is slightly higher than competitive machines, they exhibit the lowest overall cost for any machine on the market by a wide margin. Our process has been verified by research done by the US Army, Illinois Institute of Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory and others.

Our cryoprocessors are capable of automatically cycling payloads between the temperature limits of -300 and +300. Payload temperature is reduced by use of an internal heat exchanger to eliminate thermal shock. A microprocessor based industrial grade control is provided for programming, storage, and execution of complex time/temperature profiles. The system is capable of unattended running for periods of several days. A chart recorder provides a permanent record of the thermal history of each run.



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